• Skyhighatrist
    8 months ago

    That’s really only native compiled languages. Many popular languages, such as C#, Java, etc. Lie somewhere in between. They get compiled to intermediary byte code and only go native as the very final step when running. They run in a runtime environment that handles that final step to execute the code natively. For .NET languages that’s the CLR (Common Language Runtime).

    For .Net the process goes like this:

    • You write the code
    • Code is compiled to MSIL
    • At runtime when the MSIL is executing a JIT (just-in-time) compiler translates the MSIL into native code.
    • The native code is executed.

    Java has a similar process that runs on the JVM. This includes many, many languages that run on the JVM.

    JavaScript in the browser goes through a similar process these days without the intermediary byte code. Correction, JS in modern browsers also follow this process almost exactly. a JIT compiler compiles to bytecode which is then executed by the browser’s JS engine. Historically JS has been entirely interpreted but that’s no longer the case. Pure interpreted languages are pretty few and far between. Most we think of as interpreted are actually compiled, but transparently as far as the dev is concerned.

    Last, but certainly not least, Python is also a compiled language, it’s just usually transparent to the developer. When you execute a python program, the python compiler also produces an intermediary bytecode that is then executed by the python runtime.

    All that being said, I welcome any corrections or clarifications to what I’ve written.